Minoru KARASAWA, Ph.D. | 名古屋大学情報学研究科 心理学講座 唐沢研究室

Minoru KARASAWA, Ph.D.




Department of Cognitive and Psychological Sciences, Graduate School of Informatics, Nagoya University


Doctor of Philosophy in Social Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles
Doctoral Dissertation: Changing national stereotypes: Direct versus indirect disconfirmation of social beliefs
Master of Arts in Social Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles
Ph.D. student, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles (major in social psychology, minor in quantative/measurement)
Masters' and Doctorate student, Faculty of Letters (major in psychology), Kyoto University (Bungaku-shushi, M.A., 1983)
Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University (major in psychology) (bungakushi, B. A., 1981)
Academic Appointments
Professor, Graduate School of Informatics and School of Informatics (undergraduate), Nagoya University
Associate Professor and Professor, Graduate School of Environmental Studies and School of Informatics and Sciences (undergraduate), Nagoya University
Associate Professor, Faculty of Letters, Kobe University
Assistant Professor and Associate Professor, Faculty of Letters, Aichi Gakuin University

Research Interests

Intergroup cognition and behavior with special focus on stereotyping and prejudices
Judgments of morality, responsibility, and social justice
Language, culture, and communication


Research Articles

  • Awale, A., Chan, C., Tam, K., & Karasawa, M. (2021). Perceived warmth of offending group moderates the effect of intergroup apologies. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430220961844Link
  • Kaneuchi, S., Miura, A., & Karasawa, M. (2021). Do selfish behavior and altruistic behavior generalize?: An experimental investigation using the dictator game. Japanese Journal of Psychology. (in Japanese with an English abstract) https://doi.org/10.4992/jjpsy.92.20301LINK
  • Brown, C. M., Goto, N., Tsukamoto, S., & Karasawa, M. (2020). Understanding collective guilt: Tolerance for contradiction and state-trait dissociations in perceived overlap between ingroup members. Current Psychology (published on line, March 11). DOI: 1007/s12144-020-00684-6Link
  • Wice, M., Karasawa, M., Matui, T., & Miller J. G. (2020). Knowing minds: Culture and perceptions of mental state access. Asian Journal of Social Psychology (published online March 31). DOI: 10.1111/ajsp.12404
  • Hirozawa, P. Y., Karasawa, M. (2020). Negative desires make failure to help more blameworthy: The role of wrongness and moral character evaluations. Journal of Human Environmental Studies, 18(2), 119-126.
  • Hirozawa, P. Y., Karasawa, M., & Matsuo, A. (2020). Intention matters to make you (im)moral: Positive-negative asymmetry in moral character evaluations. Journal of Social Psychology, 160, 410-415. DOI: 10.1080/00224545.2019.1653254Link
  • Bastian, B., Vauclair, M., Loughnan, S., Bain, P., … Karasawa, M., et al. (2019). Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.Link
  • Matsuo, A., Sasahara, K., Taguchi, Y., & Karasawa, M. (2019). Development and validation of the Japanese Moral Foundations Dictionary. PLOS ONE, 14(3): e0213343. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213343Link
  • Wice, M., Matsui, T., Tsudaka, G., Karasawa, M., & Miller, J. G. (2019). Verbal display rule knowledge: A cultural and developmental perspective. Cognitive Development, 52 (in print; published online, June 25). DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2019.100801.Link
  • Karasawa, M., Asai, N., & Hioki, K. (2019). Psychological essentialism at the explicit and implicit levels: The unique status of social categories. Japanese Psychological Research, 61, 107-122. DOI: 10.111/jpr.12246.Link
  • Rudnev, M., Vauclair, C.-M., … Karasawa, M., …, & Bastian, B. (in press). Measurement invariance of the moral vitalism scale across 28 cultural groups. PLOS ONE 15(6):e0233989Link
  • Sprong, S., Jetten, J., Wang, Z., Peters, K., Mols, F., Verkuyten, M., Bastian, B., … Karasawa, M., et al., (2019). “Our country needs a strong leader right now”: Economic inequality enhances the wish for a strong leader. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797619875472
  • Matsuo, A., Brown, C. M., Norasakkunkit, V., & Karasawa, M. (2019). How can I become a member of my culture?: Shared representations of community-related moral violation in Japan and the U.S. Culture and Brain. DOI: 10.1007/s40167-019-00084-z
  • Ryu, H., Hotta, M., & Karasawa, M. (2018). The effect of expecting future intergroup interactions on collective guilt. Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, 58(1), 45-52. (in Japanese with an English abstract)Link
  • Smeeks, A., Jetten, J., Verkuyten, M., Wohl, M. J. A., Jasinskaya-Lahti, I., …, Karasawa, M. et al. (2018). Regaining in-group continuity in times of anxiety about the group’s future: A study on the role of collective nostalgia across 27 countries. Social Psychology. (Published online, October 9). DOI: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000350
  • Smith, H. J. , Ryan, D. A., Jaurique, A., Pettigrew, T. F., Jetten, J., …. Karasawa, M., et al. (2018). Cultural values moderate the impact of relative deprivation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49, 1183-1218. DOI: 10.1177/0022022118784213
  • Teymoori A, Jetten J, Bastian B, Ariyanto A, Autin F, Ayub N, et al. (2016) Revisiting the measurement of anomie. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0158370. doi:10.1371
  • Goto, N., Jetten, J., Karasawa, M., & Hornsey, M. J. (2015). The sins of their fathers: When current generations are held to account for the transgressions of previous generations. Political Psychology, 36, 479-487.Link
  • Tsukamoto, S., Holland, E., Haslam, N., Karasawa, M., & Kashima, Y. (2015). Cultural Differences in Perceived Coherence of the Self and In-group: A Japan-Australia Comparison, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 18(1), 83-89.
  • Tsukamoto, S., & Karasawa, M. (2015a). Dehumanization in the Judicial System: The Effect of Animalization and Mechanization of Defendants on Blame Attribution, Proceedings of the 10th Asian Association of Social Psychology biennial conference, 256-257. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Gadjah Mada University Press.
  • Tsukamoto, S., & Karasawa, M. (2015b). From interpersonal to inter-ethnic differentiation: The role of psychological essentialism. Journal of Human Environmental Studies, 13(1), 13-20.
  • Karasawa, M., Maass, A., Rakic, T., & Kato, A. (2014). The emergent nature of culturally meaningful categorization and language use: A Japanese-Italian comparison of age categories. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 431-451. doi:10.1177/0022022113509882
  • Tsukamoto, S., Enright, J., & Karasawa, M. (2013). Psychological essentialism and nationalism as determinants of interethnic bias. Journal of Social Psychology,153 (5), 515-519. doi: 10.1080/00224545.2013.795926.
  • Tsukamoto, S., Suga, S., & Karasawa, M. (2013). Rationale of punishment in the citizen-judge system. Japanese Journal of Law and Psychology , 13, 35-45. (in Japanese)
  • Adachi, K., Yama, H., Van der Henst, J.-B., Mercier, H., Karasawa, M., & Kawasaki, Y. (2013). Culture, ambiguity aversion and choice in probability judgments. International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, 23(2), 63-78.
  • Goto, N. & Karasawa, M. (2011). Identification with a wrongful subgroup and the feeling of collective guilt. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 14, 225-235. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-839X.2011.01348.x.
  • Suga, S., & Karasawa, M. (2011). Effects of the perception of a communicative context on the transmission of information. Journal of Human Environmental Studies, 9(1), 21-26 (in Japanese).
  • Tsukamoto, S., Gonzales, V., & Karasawa, M. (2010). Challenging Canadian multiculturalism: Lay perceptions of Canadian national identity. Journal of Human Environmental Studies, 8(1), 25-31.
  • Hioki, K., & Karasawa, M. (2010). Effects of entitativity on the judgment of collective intentionality and responsibility. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 81, 9-16 (in Japanese).
  • Teramae, S. & Karasawa, M. (2008). Perception of intentionality in group actions: Content analysis of behavior explanations. Journal of Human Environmental Studies, 6, 35-41 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  • Karasawa, M., Asai, N., & Tanabe, Y. (2007). Stereotypes as shared beliefs: Effects of group identity on dyadic conversations. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 10, 515-532.
  • Ma, W-J., & Karasawa, M. (2006). Group inclusiveness, group identification, and intergroup attributional bias. Psychologia, 49, 278-290.
  • Suga, S. & Karasawa, M. (2006). Jinbutsu no zokusei hyougen ni mirareru shakaiteki sutereotaipu no eikyou: Aratana genngo shihyou no kaihatsu ni mukete. [Effects of social stereotypes on language use in the description of person dispositions: Toward the construction of a Japanese Linguistic Category Model] (in Japanese). Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, 22, 180-188.
  • Karasawa, M., Karasawa, K., & Hirose, Y. (2004). Homogeneity perception as a reaction to identity threat: Effects of status difference in a simulated society game. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 613-625.
  • Karasawa, M. (2003). Projecting group liking and ethnocentrism on in-group members: False consensus effect of attitude strength. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 6, 103-116.
  • Karasawa, M. (2002) Patriotism, nationalism, and internationalism among Japanese citizens: An etic-emic approach. Political Psychology, 23, 645-666.

Books and Book Chapters

  • Karasawa, M. (2002). Henken to Sutereotaipu. (Prejudice and stereotypes) In K. Ikeda & T. Magata (Eds.), Fantajii no sekai (The world of fantasy) (in Japanese; pp. 231-246). Fukuoka: Kyushu University Press.
  • Karasawa, M. (2003). Esuno-sentorizumu to shuudankattou; shakai shinrigakuteki apuroochi. (Ethnocentrism and intergroup conflicts; Social psychological approaches. In J. Kawata & Y. Araki (Eds.), Seiji shinrigaku handobukku (The handbook of political psychology) (in Japanese; pp. 124-133). Tokyo: Hokuju Shuppan.
  • Suga, S., & Karasawa, M. (2006). Jinbutshu no zokuseihyougenn ni kannsuru “gutai” to “chushou”: Shakaishnrigaku-teki kenchi kara. (The level of abstraction in descriptions of person attributes: A social psychological perspective.) In M. Nakagawa & T. Sadanobu (Eds.), Shirizu gengo taishou: Gengoni arawareru “seken” to “sekai” (Comparative Linguistic Series: Linguistic manifestation of the small “world” and the whole “world”) (In Japanese; pp. 31-45). Tokyo: Kuroshio Publishing.
  • Karasawa, M. (2007a). Taijin-kankei to jutsugo (Interpersonal relations and predicates). In S. Okamoto (Ed.), Kotoba no komyunikeishon: Taijin-kankei no Retorikku (Language and communication: Rhetoric of interpersonal relations) (in Japanese, pp. 2-15). Kyoto: Nakanishiya Shuppan.
  • Karasawa, M. (2007b). Taijin-kankei to sekinin no shinrigaku (Psychology of interpersonal relations and responsibility). In K. Yamamoto (Ed.), Houdoutaibaku sousho: Suihei-teki chitshujo 4, Hunsou to taiwa (Studies in Legal Dynamics: Horizontal social ordering (vol. 4), Dispute and dialogue) (in Japanese, pp. 1-22). Kyoto: Houritsu Bunkasha.
  • Karasawa, M. & Suga, S. (2008a). Retention and transmission of socially shared beliefs: The role of linguistic abstraction in stereotypic communication. In Y. Kashima, K. Fiedler, & P. Frytag (Eds.) Stereotype dynamics: Language-based approaches to stereotype formation, maintenance, and transformation (pp. 241-262). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Karasawa, M., & Suga, S. (2008b). Taijin-ninchi no shinri-katei to gengo hyougen (Psychological processes in interpersonal relations and verbal expressions). In T. Masuoka (Ed.), Jojutshu ruikei-ron (Typology of narrations) (in Japanese pp. 139-160). Tokyo: Kuroshio Pubshing.
  • Karasawa, M., & Maass, A. (2008). The role of language in the perception of persons and groups. In R. M. Sorrentino & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition across cultures (pp. 317-342), San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Karasawa, M. (2010). Socially shared cognition and communication. In K. Murata (Ed.) Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology Series, Theories and applications of cognitive psychology (Vol. 6): Social cognition and affect (pp. 248-271). Kyoto, Japan: Kitaoji Publishing (in Japanese).Link
  • Ikeda, K., Karasawa, M., Kudo, E., & Muramoto, Y. (2010) Social Psychology: Active Social Animals in Multilayered Constraints (New Liberal Arts Selection)Tokyo: Yuhikaku Publishing (in Japanese)Link
  • Karasawa, M. (2011). Categorization-based versus person-based explanations of behaviors: Implications from the Dual-Process Model. In . R. M. Kramer, G. J. Leonardelli, & R. W. Livingston (Eds.), Social cognition, social identity, and intergroup relations: A Festschrift in honor of Marilynn B. Brewer (pp. 9-26 ). New York: Psychology Press.Link
  • Miyamoto, S., Karasawa, M., Kobayashi, C., & Hara, N. (Eds.) (2013). Translation: Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (2008).Social cognition: From brain to culture . (McGraw-Hill). Kitaohji Shobo.Link
  • Haslam, N., Holland, E., & Karasawa, M. (2013). Essentialism and entitativity across cultures. In M. Yuki & M. B. Brewer (Eds.), Culture and group processes (pp. 17-37). New York: Oxford University Press.Link
  • Karasawa, M., Matsumura, Y., & Okuda, T. (Eds.) (2018). Responsibility, law, and human mind: An interdisciplinary approach. (in Japanese) Tokyo: Keiso Shobo.Link
  • Tsukamoto, S., Kashima, Y., Haslam, N., Holland, E., & Karasawa, M. (2018). Entitativity perceptions of individuals and groups across cultures. In J. Spencer-Rodgers, & K. Peng. (Eds.), The psychological and cultural foundations of East Asian cognition: Contradiction, change, and holism (pp. 337. New York: Oxford University Press.


  • Karasawa, M., Tsukamoto, S., & Ryu, H. (2020). Can patriotism be distinguished from nationalism? Empirical evidence concerning Japanese national identity and its ideological significance. A poster presentation at the 21st Annual Convention of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. New Orleans, LA, USA (February 29).
  • Karasawa, M., Asai, N., & Hioki, K. (2005). Explicit versus implicit essentialism about the “nature” of social categories. Invited symposium presentation at the 6th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology. Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand (April 2).
  • Karasawa, M., & Suga, S. (2005). The linguistic expectancy bias in the context of message transmission. The 14th General Meeting of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, Wurzburg, Germany (July 20).
  • Karasawa, M. (2005). The sharedness of social cognition: An experimental approach of information transmission. Invited presentation at a symposium on “The collaboration between social psychology and media studies” at the 69th Annual Conference of Japanese Psychological Association. Keio University, Tokyo (September 12).
  • Karasawa, M., & Suga, S. (2006a). The role of linguistic categories across cultures. The Kent Workshop on Linguistic Bias. The University of Kent at Canterbury, UK (June 22).
  • Karasawa, M., & Suga, S. (2006b). Causal inference about social events and communication. The 4th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology. Chukyo University, Nagoya (August 1).
  • Karasawa, M. (2006). On the “internationalization” of Japanese social psychology. Invited presentation at a symposium on “Internationalization of Japanese psychology.” The 70th Annual Conference of Japanese Psychological Association. Fukuoka International Convention Center, Fukuoka (November 5).
  • Karasawa, M., & Chan, C. S. (2007). Spontaneous inference about person attributes: The role of social categories. The 5th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology, Kyoto University, Kyoto (May 27).
  • Karasawa, M. (2007). Lay judgments of causality and culpability. Symposium presentation at the 7th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology. Sabah, Malaysia. (Also served as a symposium organizer on “Social cognition and legal decision making). (July 28).
  • Karasawa, M., & Yoshinari, Y. (2008). Causal attribution, language use, and the perception of responsibility. The 15th General Meeting of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology. Opatija, Croatia (June 11).
  • Karasawa, M. (2008a). Research in psychology and law under the Japanese legal reformation. Symposium presentation at the 7th Biennial Conference of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, Chicago USA (June 27, 2008)
  • Karasawa, M. (2008b). A linguistic analysis of dispositional inferences and causal attributions. Symposium presentation at the 14th International Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Bremen, Germany(July 28, 2008)
  • Karasawa, M. (2009). Transmission of stereotype-relevant information in communicative contexts. Invited symposium presentation at the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of International Society of Political Psychology, Dublin, Ireland (July 14, 2009).
  • Karasawa, M. (2010). Perception of responsibility and the use of language: Implications from a Japan-France comparison. Invited symposium presentation at the 1st International Conference on Indigenous and Cultural Psychology. University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (July 25, 2010)
  • Karasawa, M., & Kaneda, M. (2010). Punishing a culpable character: Determinants of perceived retributive justice among Japanese. International Society for Justice Research. The 13th Biennial Conference, Banff, Alberta, Canada (Aug. 21-24, 2010)
  • Karasawa, M. (2011). Social groups as a basis for explanations: How ordinary perceivers make sense of other people’s behavior. A Keynote Address at the 9th Biennial Conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology, Kunming, China (August 29).
  • Karasawa, M. (2012). Punishment of an immoral character as a just desert: A case of Japanese lay judgments. Paper presented at the 14th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Justice Research, Tel Aviv, Israel (September 10, 2012)
  • Karasawa, M., & Tsukamoto, S. (2013). Psychological essentialism and ethnocentrism: A case of Japanese national attitudes. Symposium presentation at the 10th Biennial Conference of Asian Association of Social Psychology, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (August 23).
  • Karasawa, M., & Kashima, E. (2013). New directions in the study of morality 2: Culture and morality. Symposium organizers at the 10th Biennial Conference of Asian Association of Social Psychology, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (August 24).
  • Karasawa, M. (2013) Social psychological approaches to sentence judgments. Symposium on “The citizen-judge system and inappropriate sentencing” The 14th Meeting of the Japanese Society for Law and Psychology. Kyushu University. October 13.
  • Karasawa, M., & Goto, N. (2014). Retributive versus utilitarian motivations to punish an immoral character. Poster presented at the 17th General Meeting of European Association of Social Psychology. University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands (July 11
  • Karasawa, M., Ohji, A., & Tsukamoto, S. (2016). Blaming the bad intention of a group’s wrongdoing: The role of affect and perceived collective agency. A poster presentation at the 17th Annual Convention of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. San Diego, CA, USA (January 30).
  • Karasawa, M., Ryu, H., & Tsukamoto, S. (2017). The ideological nature of Japanese nationalism and patriotism. The 40th annual scientific meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Edinburgh, Scotland (June 30).
  • Karasawa, M., Suga, S., & Sato, A. (2017). The use of transitive verbs elicits the perception of blame and social power. Poster presented at the 18th General Meeting of the European Association of Social Psychology. Granada, Spain (July 6).
  • Hirozawa, P. Y., & Karasawa, M. (2018). Accepting a request with implied rule violation: A Brazil-Japan comparison on underlying psychological processes. A paper presented at the 24th International Congress of International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada (July 4).


  • Influence of psychological factors on judgments by “citizen-judges.” Lectures at a Public Symposium, ”Psychological issues concerning the citizen-judge system” by the Japanese Psychological Association. Gakushuin Universtiy (June 8, 2013); Doshisha University (November 9, 2013).

Awards and Grants

Japanese Psychological Association Publication Award
Young Psychologist (International Congress of Psychology/Japanese Psychological Association)
Fulbright Scholarship


Committees and other services

Member: The Science Council of Japan(2006 - 2014)

Board Member: Japanese Society of Social Psychology(2002 - 2005) , Japanese Group Dynamics Association(2000 - 2004)

Executive Board Member: Japanese Society of Social Psychology(2009 - 2013, 2015-2017)

Editorial Boards: Japanese Journal of Social Psychology(2001-2003), Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology(2000 - 2004), Japanese Psychological Review (2005 - 2010), Asian Journal of Social Psychology(2000 - 2007), Psychologia(2005 - present), European Journal of Social Psychology(2009 - 2013), European Journal of Social Psychology(2009 - 2013)

Editor: Japanese Journal of Social Psychology(2011 - 2013)

Associate Editor: Japanese Journal of Social Psychology(2003-2005), Asian Journal of Social Psychology(2008 - 2011)

Ad Hoc Reviewer: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Personality and Social Psychology Review, European Journal of Social Psychology, Political Psychology, Self and Identity, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Psychologia, Japanese Journal of Psychology, Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Japanese Journal of Cognitive Psychology

Committees: International Committee, Japanese Psychological Association(2005 - 2009, 2016 - present ) International Awards Committee, Japanese Psychological Association (2005 - 2010) Internationalization Committee, Society for the Psychological Studies of Social Issues (2007 - 2009)